Members of UK parliament say pupils will face a lost decade of progress in schools in England after the Covid, if action is not taken.
Reports expressed alarm that it could take 10 years for the gap between disadvantaged children and others to narrow to what it was before Covid.
It urged the government to take faster and more effective action, such as improving uptake of a tutoring scheme designed to help students catch up.
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The government said it had made £5bn available for education recovery.
About 13% of schools in England did not take part in the National Tutoring Programme (NTP) in 2021-22, affecting the education system.
The NTP provides primary and secondary schools with funding to subsidise tutoring, including one-to-one and group lessons.
The UK Department for Education (DfE) initially subsidized 75% of the costs which schools incurred for delivering the NTP, but this reduced to 60% this year and will go down to 50% next year.
Joint general secretary of the National Education Union, Kevin Courtney said the government was in denial about the scale of the problems schools are facing.