Archaeologists are hoping to leave a different type of mark on a remote Borders valley destroyed by an English army almost 500 years ago.
During a single day in 1545, a 15,000-strong force burned and pulled down more than a dozen strongholds in the Rule Valley.
Fields of corn and smaller settlements were also destroyed.
Archaeology Scotland is now excavating Bedrule Castle to improve understanding of the raid and its aftermath.
With a second spell at the rural site coming to an end this week, project manager Phil Richardson is happy with the finds and discoveries that have been made so far.
He said: “Our intention was to leave behind a much clearer picture of what was here and what happened, and I feel we are achieving that.”
From historical records, at least a dozen towers and castles along the winding Rule Valley were destroyed during a 10-hour raid on 16 September 1545.
Historians and archaeologists agree that Bedrule Castle was the largest of the buildings which came under attack during the raid.